Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. What is mining? How to use mining in a sentence. These were used to make early tools and weapons; for example, high quality flint found in northern France, southern England and Poland was used to create flint tools. Both solar and wind power plants can contribute in saving diesel costs at mining sites. The purpose of a 2012 EPS PEAKS paper[44] was to provide evidence on policies managing ecological costs and maximise socio-economic benefits of mining using host country regulatory initiatives. The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore, especially a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing. [10] He also captured gold mines in Thrace for minting coinage, eventually producing 26 tons per year. During prehistoric times, large amounts of copper was mined along Lake Superior's Keweenaw Peninsula and in nearby Isle Royale; metallic copper was still present near the surface in colonial times. An example is the in-use stock of copper. Mining in the Philippines began around 1000 BC. In addition, the price of gold increased dramatically in the 2000s, which increased gold mining; for example, one study found that conversion of forest in the Amazon increased six-fold from the period 2003–2006 (292 ha/yr) to the period 2006–2009 (1,915 ha/yr), largely due to artisanal mining.[59]. [52], Mining exists in many countries. Some passages are When the mineralised package is determined by an economic cut-off, the near-grade mineralised waste is usually dumped separately with view to later treatment should market conditions change and it becomes economically viable. High wall mining can produce thousands of tons of coal in contour-strip operations with narrow benches, previously mined areas, trench mine applications and steep-dip seams with controlled water-inflow pump system and/or a gas (inert) venting system. [20] The natives were also known for the pieces of jewelry made of other precious stones such as carnelian, agate and pearl. Mining has been identified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Black powder was first used in mining in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia) in 1627. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts. These mines are described by the Greek author Diodorus Siculus, who mentions fire-setting as one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. ( ˈmaɪnɪŋ) n. 1. Mining equipment can generate considerable noise, putting workers at risk for hearing loss. By the early 2000s, community development issues and resettlements became mainstream concerns in World Bank mining projects. Mining [a.] Due to differences in the social structure of society, the increasing extraction of mineral deposits spread from central Europe to England in the mid-sixteenth century. At other parts of the site, they penetrated the water table and dewatered the mines using several kinds of machines, especially reverse overshot water-wheels. Areas in modern Montana, Utah, Arizona, and later Alaska became predominate suppliers of copper to the world, which was increasingly demanding copper for electrical and households goods. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014. Mining companies have used this oversight from the financial sector to argue for some level of industry self-regulation. [56] Mining in India is a significant part of that country's economy. This includes mine planning to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, engineering concerns, milling and infrastructure costs, finance and equity requirements, and an analysis of the proposed mine from the initial excavation all the way through to reclamation. mine verb (GET CURRENCY) [ T ] to use special software to try to obtain new cryptocurrency (= digital currency produced by a public network rather than by a government): Since 2009, the number of … mining meaning in English. Blasting was much faster than fire-setting and allowed the mining of previously impenetrable metals and ores. As miners dug deeper to access new veins, flooding became a very real obstacle. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Stageloaders (84-102 dBA), shearers (85-99 dBA), auxiliary fans (84–120 dBA), continuous mining machines (78–109 dBA), and roof bolters (92–103 dBA) represent some of the noisiest equipment in underground coal mines. The deepest open-pit mine with respect to sea level is Tagebau Hambach in Germany, where the base of the pit is 293 metres (961 ft) below sea level. In 2010, the International Resource Panel, hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), published reports on metal stocks that exist within society[90] and their recycling rates.[88]. mining. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. Definition of mining in English Dictionary; Noun PL minings PRE mini-SUF-ing +-. Air Shaft - A vertical opening into a mine for the passage of air. Peace Parks Foundation, "Major Features: Cultural Importance." [43], Certification of mines with good practices occurs through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Miscellaneous other certification programs exist for various projects, typically through nonprofit groups.[41]:185–86. (2002). See more. mining translation in English - Spanish Reverso dictionary, see also 'mining engineer',mining industry',mining town',coal mining', examples, definition, conjugation Later, between 2613 and 2494 BC, large building projects required expeditions abroad to the area of Wadi Maghareh in order to secure minerals and other resources not available in Egypt itself. A speaker or writer uses mine to... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples [78] Dragline oilers, dozer operators, and welders using air arcing were occupations with the highest noise exposures among surface coal miners. Today, surface mining is much more common, and produces, for example, 85% of minerals (excluding petroleum and natural gas) in the United States, including 98% of metallic ores.[32]. London is known as the capital of global "mining houses" such as Rio Tinto Group, BHP Billiton, and Anglo American PLC. Examples include the silver mines of Laurium, which helped support the Greek city state of Athens. Using a video imaging and/or a gamma ray sensor and/or other Geo-Radar systems like a coal-rock interface detection sensor (CID), the operator can see ahead projection of the seam-rock interface and guide the continuous miner's progress. Mining in the United States became prevalent in the 19th century, and the General Mining Act of 1872 was passed to encourage mining of federal lands. The total movement of ore and waste constitutes the mining process. These are oil and gas extraction, coal mining, metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and mining support activities. [54] In 2002, Chile and Peru were reportedly the major mining countries of South America. The result is that metal mining activities are expanding and more and more of the world's metal stocks are above ground in use rather than below ground as unused reserves. The exploration sector is typically made up of individuals and small mineral resource companies, called "juniors", which are dependent on venture capital. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process, or KDD. Mining techniques can be divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and sub-surface (underground) mining. Show Examples. Increasing debate and influence by NGOs and local communities called for a new approaches which would also include disadvantaged communities, and work towards sustainable development even after mine closure (including transparency and revenue management). Furthermore, this highlighted regional and local demand for mining revenues and an inability of sub-national governments to effectively use the revenues. This is a loose term implying any fatal gas in a mine after an explosion or fire. [46] In 2000 it was estimated that 3,500 tailings impoundments existed, and that every year, 2 to 5 major failures and 35 minor failures occurred;[47] for example, in the Marcopper mining disaster at least 2 million tons of tailings were released into a local river. The 2000s commodities boom ("commodities supercycle") increased the prices of commodities, driving aggressive mining. A study undertaken by Cranfield University has found £360 million of metals could be mined from just four landfill sites. For rare earth minerals mining, China reportedly controlled 95% of production in 2013. Set in play transparency and community participation initiatives using the wealth accrued. 2007. p. 81, The use of Firesetting in the Granite Quarries of South India Paul T. Craddock The Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, Vol. ", Technical Report: Design and Evaluation of Tailings Dams, Trends in the stewardship of tailings dams, "Exclusive: Barrick faces sanctions for Argentina cyanide spills", "Multiple mining impacts induce widespread changes in ecosystem dynamics in a boreal lake", "Database "Renewable Energy & Mining": Wind & solar", "At Mining Sites Renewable Energy Systems are up to 70 Percent Less Expensive than Diesel Power", Industry in Transition: A Profile of the North American Mining Sector, Global stock values top $50 trln: industry data, Environmental Effects of Foreign Investment Versus Domestic Investment in the Mining Sector In Latin-America, China's Continuing Monopoly Over Rare Earth Minerals, "US Census Bureau Site North American Industry Classification System main page", Gold Mining in the Peruvian Amazon: Global Prices, Deforestation, and Mercury Imports, Amazon Gold Fever Comes with a High Environmental Cost, "Metals Economics Group World Exploration Trends Report", "Regulation & Legitimacy in the Mining Industry in Africa: Where does", "The World Bank's Evolutionary Approach to Mining Sector Reform". [69], The World Bank has been involved in mining since 1955, mainly through grants from its International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, with the Bank's Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency offering political risk insurance. In Great Britain the natives had mined minerals for millennia,[12] but after the Roman conquest, the scale of the operations increased dramatically, as the Romans needed Britannia's resources, especially gold, silver, tin, and lead. English Dictionary: 1. Other precious metals were also used, mainly for gilding or coinage. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. 2. The methods had been developed by the Romans in Spain in 25 AD to exploit large alluvial gold deposits, the largest site being at Las Medulas, where seven long aqueducts tapped local rivers and sluiced the deposits. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. [42], This was followed by the Global Mining Initiative which was begun by nine of the largest metals and mining companies and which led to the formation of the International Council on Mining and Metals, whose purpose was to "act as a catalyst" in an effort to improve social and environmental performance in the mining and metals industry internationally. Many examples of such devices have been found in old Roman mines and some examples are now preserved in the British Museum and the National Museum of Wales.[13]. The deepest mine in Europe is the 16th shaft of the uranium mines in Příbram, Czech Republic, at 1,838 metres (6,030 ft),[84] second is Bergwerk Saar in Saarland, Germany, at 1,750 metres (5,740 ft). [55] The mineral industry of Africa includes the mining of various minerals; it produces relatively little of the industrial metals copper, lead, and zinc, but according to one estimate has as a percent of world reserves 40% of gold, 60% of cobalt, and 90% of the world's platinum group metals. Most (but not all) placer deposits, because of their shallowly buried nature, are mined by surface methods. [50], The waste is classified as either sterile or mineralised, with acid generating potential, and the movement and storage of this material forms a major part of the mine planning process. The Roman miners used similar methods to work cassiterite deposits in Cornwall and lead ore in the Pennines. ...traditional industries such as coal mining. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.[1]. [39] Contamination resulting from leakage of chemicals can also affect the health of the local population if not properly controlled. Swaziland Natural Trust Commission, "Cultural Resources – Malolotja Archaeology, Lion Cavern," Retrieved August 27, 2007. Cerrillos Hills Historic Park Vision Statement. Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Synonyms, Antonyms, Derived Terms, Anagrams and senses of mining. [79] Coal mines had the highest hearing loss injury likelihood.[80]. The rock was then worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock, which would be quenched with a stream of water. "[25][26], In 1727, Louis Denys (Denis) (1675–1741), sieur de La Ronde – brother of Simon-Pierre Denys de Bonaventure and the son-in-law of René Chartier – took command of Fort La Pointe at Chequamegon Bay; where natives informed him of an island of copper. In the developed world, mining in Australia, with BHP Billiton founded and headquartered in the country, and mining in Canada are particularly significant. [41] The mining industry has provided funding to various conservation groups, some of which have been working with conservation agendas that are at odds with an emerging acceptance of the rights of indigenous people – particularly the right to make land-use decisions. [62] By the beginning of the 21st century the booming and increasingly complex mining sector in mineral-rich countries was providing only slight benefits to local communities, especially in given the sustainability issues. The resulting thermal shock cracked the rock, enabling it to be removed by further streams of water from the overhead tanks. [73] While mining today is substantially safer than it was in previous decades, mining accidents still occur. Proper ventilation, hearing protection, and spraying equipment with water are important safety practices in mines. After declines in production, another boom in mining occurred in the 1960s. Congo, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone – i.e. The Push-beam system can penetrate nearly 1,000 feet (300 m) into the coal seam. [46] These ponds are secured by impoundments (dams or embankment dams). With noun/verb tables for the different cases and tenses links to audio pronunciation and … However, they warned that the recycling rates of some rare metals used in applications such as mobile phones, battery packs for hybrid cars, and fuel cells are so low that unless future end-of-life recycling rates are dramatically stepped up these critical metals will become unavailable for use in modern technology. This disaster was surpassed only by the Benxihu Colliery accident in China on April 26, 1942, which killed 1,549 miners. 1996, "The Spanish Tradition in Gold and Silver Mining." Once the analysis determines a given ore body is worth recovering, development begins to create access to the ore body. As the coal recovery cycle continues, the cutter-head is progressively launched into the coal seam for 19.72 feet (6.01 m). [29] Aided by railroads, many traveled West for work opportunities in mining. At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mining Meaning in Hindi - In the age of digital communication, any person should learn and understand multiple languages for better communication. In high wall mining, the coal seam is penetrated by a continuous miner propelled by a hydraulic Push-beam Transfer Mechanism (PTM). [57], While exploration and mining can be conducted by individual entrepreneurs or small businesses, most modern-day mines are large enterprises requiring large amounts of capital to establish. [91] This is especially true of aluminium, used in cans, and precious metals, found in discarded electronics. In 2018, led by Chemistry and Biochemistry professor Bradley D. Smith, University of Notre Dame researchers "invented a new class of molecules whose shape and size enable them to capture and contain precious metal ions," reported in a study published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society. The science of extractive metallurgy is a specialized area in the science of metallurgy that studies the extraction of valuable metals from their ores, especially through chemical or mechanical means. Often more waste than ore is mined during the life of a mine, depending on the nature and location of the ore body. The proportion of a deposit that is economically recoverable is dependent on the enrichment factor of the ore in the area. Due to high transportation cost and theft during transportation the cost for generating electricity is normally high. Renewable energy applications are becoming an alternative or amendment. Since most metals are present in ores as oxides or sulfides, the metal needs to be reduced to its metallic form. Bulk mining - Any large-scale, mechanized method of mining involving many thousands of tonnes of ore being brought to surface per day. - Of or pertaining to mines; as, mining engineer; mining machinery; a mining region. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus Verb(1) get from the earth by excavation(2) lay mines. They followed the ore veins underground once opencast mining was no longer feasible. [47] In 2015, Barrick Gold spilled over 1 million liters of cyanide into a total of five rivers in Argentina near their Veladero mine. In the modern world, there is a dire need for people who can communicate in different languages. Cost savings can reach up to 70%. Mining companies in most countries are required to follow stringent environmental and rehabilitation codes in order to minimize environmental impact and avoid impacting human health. One patented high wall mining system uses augers enclosed inside the Push-beam that prevent the mined coal from being contaminated by rock debris during the conveyance process. [70] Between 1955 and 1990 it provided about $2 billion to fifty mining projects, broadly categorized as reform and rehabilitation, greenfield mine construction, mineral processing, technical assistance, and engineering. [58] Of all of these categories, oil and gas extraction remains one of the largest in terms of its global economic importance. [21][22][23] Indigenous peoples used Lake Superior copper from at least 5,000 years ago;[21] copper tools, arrowheads, and other artifacts that were part of an extensive native trade network have been discovered. Republic of South Africa: Author. Processing plants utilize large crushers, mills, reactors, roasters and other equipment to consolidate the mineral-rich material and extract the desired compounds and metals from the ore. Once the mineral is extracted, it is often then processed. The entrance process is voluntary for each country and is monitored by multiple stakeholders including governments, private companies and civil society representatives, responsible for disclosure and dissemination of the reconciliation report;[62] however, the competitive disadvantage of company-by company public report is for some of the businesses in Ghana at least, the main constraint. The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst mining accident, involved the death of 1,099 miners in Northern France on March 10, 1906. Furthermore, the disproportionate revenues the mining industry can bring to the comparatively small number of people that it employs,[68] causes other problems, like a lack of investment in other less lucrative sectors, leading to swings in government revenuebecause of volatility in the oil markets. The largest underground mine is Kiirunavaara Mine in Kiruna, Sweden. Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, captured the gold mines of Mount Pangeo in 357 BC to fund his military campaigns. Roman techniques were not limited to surface mining. This device was powered by animals and used the same principles used for grain threshing.[19]. Inventions like the arrastra were often used by the Spanish to pulverize ore after being mined. (1) But like many industries, mining is affected by … [6] At first, Egyptians used the bright green malachite stones for ornamentations and pottery. Mining companies can be classified based on their size and financial capabilities: New regulations and a process of legislative reforms aim to improve the harmonization and stability of the mining sector in mineral-rich countries. The water mills were employed in crushing ore, raising ore from shafts, and ventilating galleries by powering giant bellows. The mining industry in the early Middle Ages was mainly focused on the extraction of copper and iron. Mining operations definition: An operation is a highly organized activity that involves many people doing different... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The operation of the mine to recover the ore begins and continues as long as the company operating the mine finds it economical to do so. [41]:22 The results of these codes were analyzed by a group from the University of Quebec, which concluded that the codes promote foreign investment but "fall very short of permitting sustainable development". The deepest borehole in the world is Kola Superdeep Borehole at 12,262 metres (40,230 ft), but this is connected to scientific drilling, not mining. The activity of removing solid valuables from the earth.. gold mining (figuratively) Any activity that extracts or undermines.. His extensive mining for apparently statistically significant results made any of his results questionable. The current NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) of noise is 85 dBA with a 3 dBA exchange rate and the MSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) is 90 dBA with a 5 dBA exchange rate as an 8-hour time-weighted average. mining definition: 1. the industry or activity of removing substances such as coal or metal from the ground by…. [28] As with the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century, mining for minerals and precious metals, along with ranching, was a driving factor in the Westward Expansion to the Pacific coast. Mining Meaning in English to Urdu is کان کنی, as written in Urdu and Kaan Kuni, as written in Roman Urdu. (Mining & Quarrying) the act, process, or industry of extracting coal, ores, etc, from the earth. Mining in hard and soft rock formations require different techniques. [45] (As time goes on and richer deposits are exhausted – and technology improves to permit – this number is going down to .5 g and less.) Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. As recycling rates are low and so much metal has already been extracted, some landfills now contain a higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves. Around the 14th century, the growing use of weapons, armour, stirrups, and horseshoes greatly increased the demand for iron. Waste dump designs must meet all regulatory requirements of the country in whose jurisdiction the mine is located. [17] Black powder allowed blasting of rock and earth to loosen and reveal ore veins. mining meaning. Peak minerals and environmental impacts have also become a concern. In the case of placer mining, unconsolidated gravel, or alluvium, is fed into machinery consisting of a hopper and a shaking screen or trommel which frees the desired minerals from the waste gravel. The miners crushed the ore and ground it to a fine powder before washing the powder for the gold dust. The mine buildings and processing plants are built, and any necessary equipment is obtained. Mining Meaning in Arabic: Searching meanings in Arabic can be beneficial for understanding the context in an efficient manner. [75] The Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) was established in 1978 to "work to prevent death, illness, and injury from mining and promote safe and healthful workplaces for US miners. These projects have been criticized, particularly the Ferro Carajas project of Brazil, begun in 1981. Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Definition of mining in English. Artisanal mining is clearly an issue in EITI Countries such as the Central African Republic, D.R. Discover mining meaning and improve your English skills! The new method "converts gold-containing ore into chloroauric acid and extracts it using an industrial solvent. Mining [p. pr. Other hard rocks mined or collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in the English Lake District. [71] The World Bank established mining codes intended to increase foreign investment; in 1988 it solicited feedback from 45 mining companies on how to increase their involvement.[41]:20. American English: mining. liberty of the countries to expand beyond the minimum requirements and adapt it to their needs), creates another risk of unsuccessful implementation. Now, in the early 21st century, Australia remains a major world mineral producer.[31]. [20] According to Antonio Pigafetta, the people of Mindoro possessed great skill in mixing gold with other metals and gave it a natural and perfect appearance that could deceive even the best of silversmiths. These were used extensively in the copper mines at Rio Tinto in Spain, where one sequence comprised 16 such wheels arranged in pairs, and lifting water about 24 metres (79 ft). [11] Spain was one of the most important mining regions, but all regions of the Roman Empire were exploited. The new codes are intended to encourage development through tax holidays, zero custom duties, reduced income taxes, and related measures. Retrieved August 27, 2007, A culture of Improvement. % of production in 2013 Arabic has been searched 14005 times till 16 Dec, 2020. mining meaning Arabic... Increased the prices of the ore veins underground once opencast mining was no longer.! Hence, most of them publicly listed enforce environmental standards step of the local population if not properly.. Reveal ore veins person singular possessive pronoun excavation ( 2 ) lay mines any in Ancient Egypt transportation cost theft. Nonmetallic mineral mining and sub-surface ( underground ) mining. can get more one. Water stripping. heat the rock was then worked upon by fire-setting to heat the rock was worked. 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