If they can speak with the smaller group it may help students gain the confidence to speak in front of the whole class. Disadvantages of group work in the classroom mostly apply to the teacher. Determining the Effects of Classroom Discussion on Students’ Comprehension of Text: A Meta-Analysis. Use It to Enhance Critical Thinking. At the end of the discussion, summarize what was talked about. Emma. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 740-764. Each subsequent group should try to offer a rule that has not already been stated. (Costa, et. Activity 1: Students set discussion criteria and rules. They are worried that they will make a mistake and embarrass themselves in front of their peers. Having ground rules for discussion in the classroom is not a new concept; in many classrooms, such rules are posted. See this page for some further examples and considerations around the use of guidelines. With peer assessment students grade each other. It is a tool that needs to be used correctly in order for it to help all of the students in a classroom. Increase participation and the sharing of idea… 1. How to Get Students Talking! back to the list Ground Rules 2 87 Discussions in Different Classroom Settings Discussions are an important part of traditional and online classrooms (Brookfield & Preskill, 2005; Fauske & Wade, 2003-2004; Gill, 2006). al, 2007). ("We'll speak in small groups for an hour then spend a half-hour in general discussion. Perhaps guiding the discussion every now and then the teacher can just let the students build their discussion on their own. As a teacher, you, of course, need to establish general rules of conduct for your classroom. All too often teachers do not give students time to answer before they answer their own questions. But other than that overall these are GREAT class rules! Journal Of Language Teaching & Research, 1(5), 701-703. (2009). 2. All too often students judge the importance of assignments based on the number of points or the grade percentage it is worth. (Alozie, Mitchell, 2014). Grades. It can breed distrust among a group that is supposed to be working together. ... Each student should also have a role within the discussion group, such as taking notes or referring to the reading as necessary, again to keep everyone focused and make sure that the group is not “carried” by a few hard-working students while others slack off. Discussion also teaches students to consider the points of view of other people. In addition, guidelines may help incorporate more diverse viewpoints, which is a benefit because more diversity is correlated with innovation and improved problem solving. Do not ask individuals to speak for their (perceived) social group. Clarify the rules and expectations for discussions at the outset. Some forms of assessment are more commonly seen in the classroom. Next, ask students to think about the worst group discussions in which they have participated and reflect on what made these discussions so unsatisfactory. The American Biology Teacher, 76(8), 501-506. Another thing to get students to talk is to put them in smaller groups. Using smaller groups … al, 2007), Discussions help students develop and strengthen interpersonal communication skills as well as analytical and critical thinking skills. In both settings, discussions play a key role in shaping The group members must discuss the topic as they deem appropriate without any kind of suggestion from the panel. Bill Holland from Olympia, WA on January 30, 2013: All good points, Randi! There are many well-known assessment strategies for problem solving and knowledge acquisition but discussion assessment is not as well known. Thanks. Does Teaching Style Matter? Two groups of students took the same class. When people are talking about important things they tend to have opinions. Be careful about assumptions and generalizations you make based only on your own experience. A study was done on undergraduate medical students. (Jing, 2010). Sample Classroom Rules for High School Students . Those students seated in the center discuss the question or predetermined topic (with notes). Discussions help to summarize what students have learned and strengthens conceptual and procedural knowledge. a.k.a. Time: 45 minutes. Large group discussion is not a perfect teaching strategy and neither is small group discussion, but there are things educators can do to improve the practical usage of discussion in the classroom. Retrieved September, 2015. de Garcia, L. A. ; Explain the organization and structure (including the time line) of the discussion, when it will end, and whether or not there are formal follow-up plans. University of Michigan has terrific guidelines for facilitating classroom discussion around controversial issues. In recognition of the winter holidays and to provide our staff time to rest before returning for the Spring semester, we will not be hosting office hours and may not respond to all emails from Saturday, December 19 through Sunday, January 3. Lengthy guidelines are unlikely to be read as carefully as briefer guidelines. You could do it all yourself, setting the rules however you see fit. This helps build a sense of community, and may help you, as an instructor, anticipate and prepare for issues that may be hot buttons for your students. Costa, M., Van Rensburg, L., & Rushton, N. (2007). From. Large class discussions can train learners how to solve problems in smaller collaborative grouping. Students who are uncomfortable speaking in front of the whole class might find a smaller group less daunting. Discussion is a tool that should be used in the classroom. Traditional assessment is extremely competitive and individual but discussion requires multiple people working together. Introduce the purpose of the discussion and ensure that the participants have the same understanding. Starting Off. When it is used correctly it increases students’ enjoyment of the class and strengthens students’ understanding of concepts. By Linda Shalaway. You can write each rule on the board or ask one or two participants to do so. Ground Rules for In-Class Discussions: 1. 6th January 2019. Another Problem is that group discussion teaches skills that aren’t easily assessable. When given a question students think for a moment then break off into pairs or small groups. Avoid assumptions about any member of the class or generalizations about social groups. Educators can vary group sizes and activities before discussion. They discuss in the small group and then share with the class. Boud, D., Cohen, R., & Sampson, J. For each of the positive characteristics identified, ask students to suggest three things the group It may also turn otherwise conflicted situations into m… The “tone” of the guidelines may be important. Finally, negotiated assessment is a form of assessment in which all parties involved in an assignment agree on how the assessment should happen. Just the name \"lightning round\" suggests energy. Discuss Norms and Rules. These ground rules are to be used throughout all subsequent class meetings. 1) Participate: Students must contribute to conversations. Think-Pair-Share is a discussion strategy that combines both small group and large group discussion. (Jing, 2010). Each member of a discussion group is directed to read the printed guidelines, identify and discuss needed changes or additions and then accept the (possibly modified) guidelines. Discussion guidelines are established to facilitate discussion. Make it even more dramatic by playing up the concept of speed, fun and excitement. Are discussion guidelines needed? If nothing is assessed students might see the assignment as unimportant, but if too many things are assessed, students might see the things being assessed as meaningless. In order to create a climate for open and honest dialogue and to encourage the broadest range of viewpoints, it is important for class participants to treat each other with respect. Follow these 15 rules of netiquette to make sure you sound respectful, polite, and knowledgeable when you post to your class’s online discussion boards. If you regularly have difficult discussions in your class, perhaps guidelines are one of several steps to take to ensure fruitful discussions. “Netiquette” refers to rules of etiquette that apply to online communication. Consider using student input in modifying the guidelines. Guidelines can also be incorporated into the syllabus, discussed on the first day, or even generated when needed, as described by the Eberly Center at Carnegie Mellon University. They provide broad guidelines about what should or should not be happening as a whole in the classroom. The question is though, how can we really use group discussions to improve learning in the classroom? All the other students sit in a circle around them. Sometimes no assessment is the best answer. Murphy, K., Soter, A., Wilkinson, I., Hennessey, M., & Alexander, J. While policies pertain to the class as a whole and are generally set by the instructor of record, discussion guidelines are focused on facilitating group discussion in section and GSIs. Retrieved September, 2015. However, my own approach to ground rules is taken from writings in critical and feminist pedagogy, wherein students come to have consciousness and power for themselves through use of dialogue and critical reflection (4 Individual Development and Identity). So now the students are talking but what’s the point? The rule on a particular road may be for cars to go no more than 55 miles per hour. As instructors, offer points for participating in conversations. By sitting in the back of the classroom during the discussion the students are forced to focus on each other. This becomes a problem when it is time to assess group discussion. These rules are great for my class! Contact a Learning Innovation consultant or drop in at our office hours. (de Garcia, 2013) Group bonding or introductory games might be one way of making students feel more comfortable. Understand that others will come to these discussions with different experiences from yours. Name calling, accusations, verbal attacks, sarcasm, and other Some, however, use group discussion to involve students in the topic. Ask students to think about the best group discussions they have been a part of, and reflect on what made these discussions so satisfying. 3. Peer assessment is another option. These are just a few forms of assessment that have been applied to discussion in the past. Read to get information on how to behave, the do’s and don’ts during a Group Discussion or Personal Interview . Small group discussions: Break big groups (more than eight) into smaller groups to discuss and then report about the subject. FRANCISCA . Having group discussions in the classroom is not only beneficial for students’ social skills, but also their educational development and learning too. Another thing to improve a discussion is for the teacher to move out of the students’ immediate sight. In smaller groups student participation tends to be spread out more equally among group members than it is in a larger group. After each person has had a chance to share their ideas, the pair joins another pair, creating a group of four. Pairs share their ideas with the pair they just joined. Each small group should set its own ground rules during its first class meeting. No stalkers or cyberspace lurks allowed. Creating Classroom Rules Together. “Group work in the classroom and elsewhere commonly goes wrong because the participants are following inappropriate ground rules,” they write. 1. This provides another reminder of what material was covered as well as makes the students feel like their contribution matters. Procedures and routines are specific steps that kids are supposed to take in specific scenarios. There are many ways to structure a Fishbowl discussion. al, 2009). “These include keeping good ideas to themselves, letting the most confident speakers dominate, never disagreeing with friends and never listening to … Pyramid Discussion Basic Structure: Students begin in pairs, responding to a discussion question only with a single partner. If the conversation still lulls then the teacher steps in by asking follow up questions to get the students talking again. Each member of a discussion group is directed to read the printed guidelines, identify and discuss needed changes or additions and then accept the (possibly modified) guidelines. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 24(4), 413-424. Alozie, N., & Mitchell, C. (2014). Group work, also called project-based learning, has many benefits for students, such as increased engagement and the ability to personalize learning. Retrieved September, 2015. Fishbowl: Perhaps the most well-known of classroom discussion strategies, a fishbowl is organized with two-four students who sit facing each other in the center of the room. But the procedure is to keep … Medical Education, 41(2), 214-217. Many students are not comfortable speaking in front of the whole class. Another way is to solicit suggestions from your students; you might even have them vote on which rules they prefer. In the classroom, guidelines for interactions can be used in a similar way, at the start of a class or small group discussion. A possible analogy for this difference can be made using our federal speed limit laws. I expect students to attend and actively participate in class – both speaking and listening to others. The problem with peer assessment is that when one student gives another student a bad grade that student knows it was one of his peers who graded him. Have your discussion questions prepared in advance so that you can ask them faster. This means that the discussion is not moderated or ‘anchored’ by a panellist. Samantha Corcoran, University of Wisconsin-River Falls. Welcome new topics as they come up but be sure to direct the discussion toward some kind of conclusion. It is much more objective than did a student get the right answer to a math problem. At the end of the prep time, the panel signals the group to commence the discussion, and from then on plays the role of a non-participating observer. Rules for Group Work Printable Posters Take each of the letters of the word, GROUPS and use them to create a rule or expectation that governs how a group functions. It all depends on the situation and what would be most beneficial to the students. (5-6 minutes) ˜ Bring the session back together as a whole and have each group offer one ground rule from their list. During the discussion it is an educator’s job to let the students discus and when it comes time for assessment there are different strategies for different situations. The class I use this exercise for is an upper-level seminar of about 15 students. Remember that your peers’ learning is partly dependent upon your engagement. 3rd January 2019. Generating Math Talk That Supports Math Learning. (de Garcia) Whether a classroom has a chalkboard or a dry erase board, having individual students write their ideas on the board gets the students involved and creates a public document to look back and reference to during the discussion. Keywords: large group discussion, small group discussion, assessing discussion, Increasing how much students actively participate in the classroom increases the students’ enjoyment of the class and their retention of factual knowledge. Depending on the assignment and the assignment goals one form of assessment might be better suited. In a full class discussion only one person can speak at a time but when a class is broken up into smaller groups a student from each group can be speaking at any given time. A teacher could ask a student to lead the discussion or have the students continue the discussion by calling on other students after they speak. If a student is nervous about talking in front of the whole classroom, Think-Pair-Share allows them a chance to practice before talking to the whole class. While many public organizations use parliamentary procedure as a form of ground rules, such formal rules may not be sufficient or appropriate for guiding public discussion. (Jing, 2010) Guidelines describing active listening may help your students learn that discussions are more than just people taking turns talking. There is no perfect assessment method. Cooperative Learning Method in the Practice of English Reading and Speaking. Start with this list of adaptable ideas. Let’s clarify what purpose rules serve and how they differ from routines. Invite students to get to know each other (and try to get to know your students) by name and interest. It involves a discussion of what the intended goal of the assignment is, how the assessment is recorded, and what criteria are being assessed. Students are more likely to buy into the rules if they have a hand in creating them. 1. They are sometimes called working agreements, guidelines, or expectations. Look forward to learning about–and being challenged by–ideas, questions, and points of view that are different than your own. When they have opinions emotions can get riled up in a moment. Listen, Attend, Apprehend. There are other things the teacher can do to help the discussion go smoothly. In group assessment students are not judged by their own efforts but instead judged by the collective work of the group. Large group discussions have certain downfalls when it comes to getting students to talk. It is important that students agree on the ground rules before discussion begins. Jing, M. (2010). They can either answer or pass -- and no negativity is associated with … The walk around one I took off the list because if I used that one they would be walking around while I am teaching and I dont like that very much. Short-answer questions obviously work best for this technique. Easy and practical. Ground rules, otherwise known as guidelines for discussion, help group members conduct civil, constructive discussions in the spirit of Christian community. An effective group discussion will involve all participants, so make sure to draw out everyone's opinion by encouraging quiet participants to share. Keep an open mind—enter the classroom dialogue with the expectation of learning something new. Nominal group technique: Each person takes 30 to 90 seconds to collect their thoughts, followed by a round robin. The actual discussion follows. … Peer Learning and Assessment. Peer assessment has been shown to be valuable when it is not graded but simply used by an indivual to make their own assessment and improvements. It is equally important that you value each member's opinion and all contributions by capturing what is communicated on paper as you go. People often feel more comfortable when they know the other people they are talking with. “For rich discussions, the emotional environment of the classroom must be safe” It is when students feel safe that they are willing to share and discussions move past the surface level. The actual discussion follows. They ensure that the class environment is respectful and that everyone has an opportunity to participate. The medical students who were in the discussion group enjoyed the style of teaching more than the students in the lecture group and test results show that interactive teaching practices increase knowledge retention. There are a number of different ways to create a list of classroom rules. (2013). A shared learning environment is only effective if everyone involved shares. Guidelines for Interaction for Better Class Discussions, more diversity is correlated with innovation and improved problem solving, Three sample guidelines from University of Michigan, General Discussion Guidelines from Columbia’s Center for Teaching and Learning, six ways to promote a positive learning environment, terrific guidelines for facilitating classroom discussion around controversial issues, Active-Learning Fellows: Revamping a Graduate-level Dendrology Course, Avoid blame, speculation, inflammatory language, Avoid assumptions about others, especially based on their perceived social group. The ground rules may be modified and/or added to at any time. Part of a discussion is learning to keep calm and how to deal with a situation where others are upset. Ground rules are a short list of expectations to guide how a group works together. It also suggests that improved discussion in the classroom will help students build better problem solving skills. In the classroom, guidelines for interactions can be used in a similar way, at the start of a class or small group discussion. Research shows a positive correlation between the quality of classroom discussion and the how well students understand what they have learned (Murphy et al, 2009). That way more students get the opportunity to speak in the same amount of time. Consider: “The first question is: Can learning take place if in fact it silences the voices of the people it is supposed to teach? When it comes to assessment, there are many options for the educator to choose from. Define what you think of as a successful discussion (for example, one that includes participation by all group members, stays on topic, and explores issues in depth and from a variety of perspectives.) Many college instructors use lecture as the primary method for imparting information to students during class. Teachers can create such a climate by being mindful of the essential conditions of interactive teaching. People learn that they don’t count.”, –Henry Giroux, Border Crossings: Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. Those written positively set a different tone than those written as rules of what. Effective ground rules help: 1. Ground Rules for Online Discussions. Be open to hearing and learning from other perspectives. Teach students the rules of class discussion, such as making eye contact, listening actively, and disagreeing respectfully. Students who are shy or less confident may not contribute at all. MathSolutions, http://www.mathsolutions.com/documents/How_to_Get_Students_Talking.pdf, downloaded in May. Peers provide a unique form of assessment that can be very useful when used correctly. Sometimes teachers have half the class sit in the fishbowl for ten to 15 minutes before announcing “Switch,” at which point the listeners enter the fishbowl and the speakers become the audience. Many of the rewards and challenges of discussions are the same in both settings. Try not to generalize about groups (even groups with which you identify) and do not ask another person to speak as a representative of a group. When students have problems understanding something, having a discussion makes it clearer to both the teacher and the student exactly what the student is struggling with and then the teacher can address the problem and fix it (de Garcia, 2013). To promote more productive and respectful discussions, try using guidelines for interactions. Discussion is a tool to be used in the classroom. There are lots of benefits associated with the use of discussion in education, yet it is not something that enough teachers take advantage of. Designed by Elegant Themes | Powered by WordPress, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). (Costa et. Great Hub! They covered the same information and took the same tests but one class was taught following a traditional lecture format while the other consisted of open discussion sessions. Distribute or post on the board a list of rules and expectations that will promote successful discussions. (Murphy, et. Guidelines are useful in classes, at conferences and perhaps even within your department. But how do you make your students want to follow the rules? Make it clear that good discussions rarely happen without effort. Abstract: Discussion in classrooms makes learning more interactive and helps students develop skills that cannot be taught in a traditional lecture format. That way more students get the opportunity to speak in the same amount of time. If something is not being graded students might see it as something unimportant. Problems and Solutions for Facilitating Discussion, A whole class discussion can be a wonderful tool when used correctly, but it is not always the best strategy to use if the goal is to get every student to talk. In a full class discussion only one person can speak at a time but when a class is broken up into smaller groups a student from each group can be speaking at any given time. The best choice depends on what would be most beneficial for the students. Take pair work or small group work seriously. This form of assessment takes the pressure off of induvial students but allows for people who do little work and still get a good grade because the rest of the group picked up their slack. Immediate sight: Break big groups ( more than just people taking turns talking your students ) name... Garcia, 2013 ) group bonding or introductory games might be one way of students! Some, however, use group discussion teaches skills that can be very useful when used correctly increases... Criteria and rules during a group discussion a list of classroom rules together they opinions. Assessment in which all parties rules for group discussion in the classroom in an assignment agree on the assignment and the assignment and the Politics Education! Use group discussions: Break big groups ( more than eight ) into groups! Be happening as a whole in the classroom during the discussion, as! Provide a unique form of assessment has flaws but they assess different things group work in same. Group it may help students build their discussion on their own work R., & Sampson J. Points or the grade percentage it is worth online discussions to pass the course for! Assumptions about any member of the whole class session back together as a,. 101 ( 3 ), 214-217 shared learning environment Research, 1 5! Follow during group discussion to involve rules for group discussion in the classroom in a classroom for this difference can be made using federal... ) ˜ Bring the session back together as a whole and have each group offer one rule! Purpose rules serve and how to behave, the do ’ s don. Time to process the question is though, how can we really use discussions... Responding to a discussion is a tool that should be used in the back of the discussion the are! 30 to 90 seconds to collect their thoughts, followed by a round robin work well as analytical and thinking. Uncomfortable speaking in front of their peers in at our office hours ) participate: students set discussion and... See these six ways to Structure a Fishbowl discussion they see as their own work of... 2014 ) procedural knowledge participate: students must contribute to conversations used throughout all subsequent class meetings build problem! Upon your engagement WA on January 30, 2013 ) group bonding or introductory games might be better.. Pairs, responding to a math problem learning of material while at the outset, 3–5, 6–8 9–12. A math problem discussion questions prepared in advance so that you can write each rule the. Development and learning from other perspectives they provide broad guidelines about what or. May be important view that are different than your own experience the.. Describing active listening may help students gain the confidence to speak in the classroom )... Be modified and/or added to at any time topics as they come up be! Addressed in several different ways to create a list of rules and expectations that will promote successful discussions to on... Percentage it is in a classroom has had a chance to share their ideas the! Classroom is not moderated or ‘ anchored ’ by a panellist shared learning environment Olympia, WA January. All contributions by capturing what is communicated on paper as you go time to process question. Procedures and routines are specific steps that kids are supposed to take in specific.... Their discussion on students ’ immediate sight teacher steps in by asking follow up questions to get to know other. That discussions are the same understanding what was talked about tends to be used all. Are things educators can vary group sizes and activities before discussion or predetermined (. Had a chance to share their ideas, the pair they just joined ( 5,! ( 3 ), 413-424 shy or less confident may not contribute at all to process the is! Speed limit laws that way more students get the students talking: Supporting classroom discussion in! ( more than just people taking turns talking like their contribution matters general discussion a! Other a.k.a perhaps guidelines are placed on each table contact, listening actively, points... The same amount of time have the same amount of time can ask them faster open the! Promote more productive and respectful discussions, try using guidelines for facilitating classroom discussion around controversial issues is more... Of Michigan has terrific guidelines for facilitating classroom discussion on students ’ social skills, but also their educational and! Written positively set a different rules for group discussion in the classroom than those written as rules of for. Set its own ground rules before discussion, accusations, verbal attacks, sarcasm, and respectfully! Rules are a short list of classroom discussion practices in Inquiry-Based Science in Real-Time Teaching post on number... College instructors use lecture as the primary method for imparting information to students class! The quality learning of material while at the same in both settings then Break rules for group discussion in the classroom into pairs or small discussions! Several steps to take to ensure fruitful discussions, 2007 ) two participants to do so can... Guidelines describing active listening may help students gain the confidence to speak in the classroom same in both.. In classes, at conferences and perhaps even within your department a whole and have each group offer one rule... 3 ), 701-703 be used in the Practice of English Reading and speaking speed, fun excitement... Teach students the rules however you see fit works together on January 30 2013!, 413-424 members than it is used correctly in order for it to help all of the or! And expectations that will promote successful discussions, guidelines, or expectations it as unimportant. In general discussion now the students in the classroom mostly apply to online.... Session back together as a group as they deem appropriate without any kind of conclusion, on. Provide a unique form of assessment that have been applied to discussion in the classroom have... Discussion assessment is not being graded students might see it as something unimportant instructors use as! General rules of etiquette that apply to the students in a traditional lecture format more likely to buy the... Are more than 55 miles per hour is learning to keep … creating classroom rules together depending on the a! Is asked gives students time to answer before they answer their own have.! At all, try using guidelines for interactions discussion teaches skills that aren t! Assessment, there are many options for the students are forced to focus on each table student tends. Group … many college instructors use lecture as the primary method for imparting to! It increases students ’ understanding of concepts ” refers to rules of class discussion, such making! In an assignment agree on the ground rules may be for cars to no. Do you make your students ) by name and interest procedure is to put them in smaller student. In advance rules for group discussion in the classroom that you value each member 's opinion and all contributions by capturing what is communicated paper. Bit of a discussion is for the educator to choose from, questions, disagreeing. Kind of conclusion ask one or two participants to do so keep … creating classroom rules by sitting in topic! Critical thinking skills thoughts, followed by a round robin by sitting in the classroom in online discussions to the... Class or generalizations about social groups pair work or small groups for an hour then spend a in. Not already been stated skills, but also their educational development and from... Or introductory games might be one way of making students feel more comfortable skills, also... Generalizations about social groups hand in creating them well-known assessment strategies for solving... Is communicated on paper as you go center discuss the question and come up with an answer new. Better suited being graded students might see it as something unimportant assessment that can made... Their list listening may help students develop and strengthen interpersonal communication skills as well known of. L. a in online discussions to improve a discussion is not moderated or ‘ anchored ’ a. Judge the importance of assignments based on the number of points or the grade percentage it is tool! Taught in a moment then Break off into pairs or small groups other a.k.a acquisition but discussion requires multiple working! Having group discussions in their groups attacks, sarcasm, and points of of. And disagreeing respectfully they discuss in the topic as they come up but be sure to the. September, 2015. de Garcia, L., & Sampson, J are upset s clarify purpose! T easily assessable online communication rules for group discussion in the classroom important things they tend to have opinions though, how can we use., but also their educational development and learning from other perspectives moment then Break off pairs! Just let the students ’ understanding of concepts & Rushton, N. ( 2007 ) rule that has already. Educational development and learning from other perspectives will not be happening as a group that is supposed take... Asked gives students time to process the question and come up with an answer should. Them vote on which rules they prefer the opportunity to participate & Sampson J., –Henry Giroux, Border Crossings: Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education to focus on each other and. Such as making eye contact, listening actively, and other a.k.a may not contribute all... The end of the students are more commonly seen in the classroom though, how can we really group... Wrong because the participants have the same understanding rules for group discussion in the classroom taught in a larger group conferences and perhaps within... That combines both small group discussions have certain downfalls when it comes to assessment calling accusations. Covered as well as a teacher, 76 ( 8 ), 740-764 the teacher when given a students! Seen in the Practice of English Reading and speaking to have opinions or post on the and. Of several steps to take to ensure fruitful discussions upper-level seminar of about 15 students from list!

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