It spread rapidly westward as railroads were built, and it appeared in Kansas in 1877, possibly from contaminated Ukrainian wheat seed. [54], In an investigation in Lincoln, Nebraska during two very dry years (only 6.68 cm of rainfall in 1983 and 3.63 cm in 1984) studied the effects of September applications. Proceedings of North Central Weed Control Conference 33:140-158. [40] According to Bakke et al. 1970. Proceedings North Central Weed Science Society, p.74. Crafts, A.S. & P.B. Dexter, S.T. non Vahl : Strophocaulos arvensis (L.) Small : Common Name(s): creeping jenny [English] European bindweed [English] perennial morningglory [English] smallflowered morningglory [English] field bindweed [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Applications were made once in the fall and every spring for four years. 1996. Bates, M.R. 1978. Field bindweed (, Hill, J. It is a weak-stemmed, prostrate plant that can twine and may form dense tangled mats.Stems can grow to 1.5m or longer, and its underground rhizomes may range from 5cm to 2.6m long. 1927. [10] Seeds sown at two-week intervals had various germination rates—60-75% (spring), 44-57% (early summer), and 1-10% (midsummer). While 2.24kg/ha glyphosate reduced infestation levels to 24% under conditions of low humidity, in humid conditions control was only to 60%. Many parasitic organisms have been under investigation for control of field bindweed and one has been approved, but none have yet proven useful. The Nature Conservancy Weed Report for the northern Idaho Garden Creek Preserve on. & Lavake, D.E. Meadows, fields, lawns, woodlands. Field Bindweed is a perennial broadleaf weed that is also known by its scientific name, Convolvulus arvensis. [10] [36]Brown and Porter (1942)[10] found that 65% of a carefully selected set of plump 55-year old dry-stored seeds were still germinable, and those buried deeply in the soil can persist nearly as long. Almost all current recommendations for cultivation also prescribe some herbicide treatment. 1908. Results are generally best if field bindweed is in early bud to full bloom. Smith 1960. Peeper. [20] Swan (1980)[5] maintains that seedlings should be cultivated or hoed before they are a month old. Swanton. & Muzik, T.J. 1967. Field bindweed begins growing in the late spring or early summer and may persist until the first frost. Field bindweed can contaminate nursery stock, so Callihan et al. Nevertheless, preserve managers give field bindweed a relatively high threat rating. Botanical Review 10(5):279-326. (1990)[6] suggest it was introduced to Virginia in 1739. Montana State University. Alcock and Dickinson (1974)[15] find the species restricted to areas with available moisture throughout the summer and autumn in Australia. Flowers are approximately 0.75-1 in. Waddington, K.D. Holm, L., D.L. As mentioned above, resistant strains of field bindweed have been identified but it is unclear if tolerance to 2,4-D is a widespread problem. Creeping. Holt, F.D Hess. 1995. (1990)[6] found that perennial grasses compete well with field bindweed because they grow early in the season and take advantage of the limited moisture. University of California Press, Berkeley. Knight. Strophocaulos arvensis . In California, it grows from May through October. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, p. 88. Dybing. A California Flora. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu. The winterhardiness of weeds. Identify. [5], Weaver and Riley (1982)[7] believe that new introductions of field bindweed are primarily by seed. The showy, funnel-shaped flowers of Convolvulus arvensis are unlikely to be confused with Polygonum convolvulus’s clusters of inconspicuous, greenish-white flowers. Meyer, J.L. [2] Like other weeds, field bindweed takes nutrients and water that would otherwise be available to desirable species . U.S. Department of Agriculture Farmer’s Bulletin 368. 1991. Where annual rainfall is low to moderate (27-50 cm) plants acquire attributes that deter absorption of herbicides, such as: lower leaf area, thicker cuticles, greater cuticular wax content, slowed biological processes, small leaf/root ratio [57], and vertical leaf orientation so herbicide rolls off. & Porter, R.H. 1942 The viability and germination of seeds of. 1963a. 1997. Glyphosate alone does not provide consistent control of field bindweed. In northeastern Oregon on the Middle Fork Preserve, it occurs along roadsides and riparian areas (Youtie, 1994). Color, brightness and other floral characteristics attracting insects to the blossoms of some Canadian weeds. Weed Seed Handbook. Spraying for the control of Wild morning-glory within the fog belt. Leaves have a continuous, untoothed margin. Herbicide application should be applied when the herbicide will be translocated to the roots, but before seed set. Derscheid, L.A., D.E. (1990)[6] suggest that competitive crops may need to be fortified with an early season nitrogen application, and reseeded/planted where needed. The Worlds Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology. Youtie successfully halted the spread of the species through herbicide application while Swarz controlled the weed with tillage and competitive species plantings. CONVOLVULACEAE. (1990)[6] suggest every 14 days. Fernald. Harvey, A.H. Larson, R.H. Landon. Russ, O.G. Field bindweed: A growth stage indexing system and its relation to control with glyphosate. Convolvulis arvensis, commonly known as field bindweed, is an invasive weed found in many parts of the world. [3] Other common names are ‘possession vine,’ ‘creeping jenny,’ ‘creeping charlie’ [4], ‘field morning-glory,’ ‘orchard morning-glory’ [3], ‘European bindweed’ [5], ‘corn-bind,’ ‘morning-glory’ [6], and ‘small-flowered morning-glory’. [65], In Bushland, Texas, in the southern Great Plains, 1.1 kg/ha 2,4-D applied once per year to 5 week old field bindweed effectively controlled it after two years. Bakke, A.L. Leaf necrosis can increase penetration but may decrease transport. Food reserve depletion and synthesis in Field bindweed, Wiese, A.F., Salisbury, C.D., Bean, B.W., Schoenhals, M.G., Amosson, S. 1996. Both ‘bindweed’ and ‘wild morning-glory’ are applied to all the weedy species in the genus [2], but ‘field bindweed’ is used almost exclusively to refer to Convolvulus arvensis L. and is accepted by the Weed Science Society of America as the “official” common name. Field bindweed management between small-grain crops with Picloram herbicide. This suggests that 2,4-D may not work well in very dense patches where some branches are shielded from herbicide application. Texas bindweed. Gray’s New Manual of Botany. Managers are generally pessimistic about field bindweed control and question whether eradication is possible. Due to its climbing ability, it is able to infest various levels of a plant community (i.e. Biological Control of Weeds in the West. Miller, R. Parker, J.P. Yenish, R.H. Callihan, C. Eberlein, G.A. The Nature Conservancy Weed Report for the northeastern Colorado Phantom Canyon preserve on. Near Bushman, Texas, the following treatments provided good control (97-100%) of field bindweed at the end of two years: A. tillage every three weeks and 2,4-D at 1.1 kg/ha through the growing season, plus one follow-up treatment to five-week old, vigorous field bindweed. Host specificity and biology of. Quinclorac kills a variety of annual grasses and some broad-leaved plants, including field bindweed. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular, #168. Hogs may eat the tops of field bindweed, and root deeply to eat rootstock, but as noted earlier, too much may distress them. Foraging patterns of Halictid bees at flowers of. [2] Sheep have been used in controlling the weed but only eat above ground parts, and only when there is no other vegetation. Botanical Review 44:365-396. In Canada, growth begins when day temperatures are near 20oC and night temperatures are at least 14oC. About the Catalogue of Life; What's new? This website uses a cookie to track whether you choose to see the weeds in order by scientific name or common name. Field bindweed is found on several of The Nature Conservancy’s preserves and poses a threat to their restoration efforts. Effects of watering frequency, drought and glyphosate on growth of field bindweed (, Westwood, J.A. Biological of hedge bindweeds of Long Island. A 1% solution can be used for spot treatments. PhD. II: Scientific Names Index . Oregon State University Extension Publication. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, p. 30. Washington Agronomy Experimental Station Popular Bulletin, #176. B. no-tillage plus 2,4-D at 1.7 kg/ha after harvest in spring and a following applications to five week old vigorous field bindweed. Stahler, A.C. Arny, R.B. If the above-ground portion of the weed is continually destroyed, the root eventually starves and dies. 1959. Beidleman, C.A. [64] Today agronomists apply it frequently in conjunction with other chemicals. Absorption and translocation of glyphosate in tolerant and susceptible biotypes of bindweed (. (1996)[21] found that winter wheat in the Texas panhandle effectively controls field bindweed because it grows early in the season while most plants are still dormant, and reduces the available water. Plunknett. The outcome of competition between species can be complicated and unpredictable, but it appears the competitive balance between field bindweed and other species may depend mostly on soil water status ( Bakke, 1939). 1960. Holm, L.G., J.V. [9] The veins on mature leaves are pale green and depressed on the upper surface. Convolvulus species are referred to as bindweeds. Convolvulus arvensis is a species of bindweed in the morning glory family, native to Europe and Asia. [53], Timing is important when applying herbicides, whether you wish to kill the above-ground growth or tranlocate herbicides to the root system. They are arrange alternate each other on petioles. Genus: Convolvulus L. Common Name: BINDWEED. Convolvulus equitans. [12] Plants with characteristics intermediate to those of these varieties are common in North America, further discouraging the use of the varietal names in the USA. Sherrick, S.L., H.A. [6] Many other species have been collected from field bindweed in Canada and the U.S. and a list of these may be found in Weaver and Riley (1982)[7]. non Vahl: STAR7: Strophocaulos arvensis (L.) Small Cordate. white or light pink, funnel-shaped (petals fused), two leafy bracts at base; solitary, long stalked, axillary Seed coats can become permeable if exposed to adequate water, moist air, or fluctuating soil temperatures in the top 8cm of soil. For best results, the cultivator should be capable of cutting 15cm below the soil surface. [69], Some biotypes are resistant to glyphosate. [5] If you are borrowing large equipment it should be examined and cleaned before it is used on your property. Stahler. [51][12][55][6][15] In early spring the plant draws from its root and the majority of translocation will be from below to above ground. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. Williams, M.C., F.W. Spencer, L.V. Field bindweed (, O’Brien, C. & M. O’Brien. Field Bindweed leaves are shaped like an arrowhead with two pointed basal lobes that usually extend at right angles to the leaf mid-vein. Glyphosate (Roundup) was applied in October, although this had little effect because it was quickly followed by a killing frost. D. VanNostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, NJ. Both adults and larvae feed on the leaves of many members of the Convolvulaceae. For small areas this may be done using hand-held tools, but for large areas machinery is required. (1990)[6] disagreed. The amount of field bindweed that can be safely eaten by sheep, cattle, and goats is not known. Post-harvest treatments for field bindweed control. [7] In Canada the name ‘liseron des champs’ (translation: field bindweed) may be used. (1939)[41], concentrations of food reserves in field bindweed roots were substantially higher at soil depths of 1.8-2.4m. [7] The germination rate of field bindweed is low, but still substantially higher than that of four other perennial weed species. Flowers are similar to those of morning-glory, funnel shaped and white to pink in color having 5 united petals. 1973. Wikipedia The control was approximately 76% with quinclorac at 0.5 lb/A plus dicamba at 0.25 lb/A and a crop oil surfactant Sun-It at .25 G. The wheat injury was 22%. 1927. The prospective biocontrol agents themselves are heavily parasitized, do not feed exclusively one species, or simply do not cause sufficient damage to field bindweed. Wiese, A.F., B.W. Lym, R.G. Seed leaves (cotyledons) are nearly as broad as long, somewhat round, and notched at the tip. Field bindweed is extremely persistent as seed (Porter & Brown, 1952). Rea. Species that may be useful in the future are listed below. In New York it was observed feeding on field bindweed and C. sepium to the point of complete defoliation while leaving other plants such as rye and corn were untouched. [42] Muenscher (1955)[43] suggests that fields be tilled/cultivated every 4-6 days. This plant is a viny plant spreading by rhizomes and seed and has an extremely deep and extensive root system. Duncan, C.N. [24] It is unclear when field bindweed was introduced to North America. Some of the herbicides mentioned below, including 2,4-D, paraquat (Gramaxone®), and picloram (Tordon®) are restricted or prohibited in some states. Best (1963a)[34] investigated the spread of field bindweed by monitoring 25 shoots growing from transplants under non-competitive conditions. field bindweed. Bellue, M.K., E.A. & S.C. Weller. [10] Germination of fresh seed is not stimulated by light. 2,4-D is the most widely used herbicide because it controls the weed effectively and is relatively inexpensive. European morning glory. Water-impermeable seed dormancy. 1985. [74] First released in 1987, as of 1995 self-sustaining populations had not been established.[75]. Hoeing or hand-pulling in conjunction may be helpful but may also encourage the germination of dormant seeds or further promote vegetative growth by breaking up and spreading the plant.[6]. II, 1987; Gamble 1957 Information Listing > References. After rain, 0.84 kg/ha provided the best control, 0.6 kg/ha was insufficient, and 1.1kg/ha was wasteful. Common Names: Bindweed while the leaves of Ipomoea pandurata (Wild Sweet Many Convolvulaceae can also become invasive. Light effects on phyto-toxicity with respect to herbicides. Some preserve managers report success controlling field bindweed with herbicides. Experiments with sodium chlorate and other chemicals as herbicides for field bindweed. The Nature Conservancy Weed Report for the Idaho Thousand Springs Preserve on. Released in Texas in 1989 and established there, but its impacts are unclear to date. It has long been known that field bindweed may proliferate if broken into small parts [2], and Frazier (1943b)[20] attributes resprouting to undamaged plant parts left underground. University of California, Agricultural Extension Publication, #4030. [2] Swarz had success using only one cultivation per season (see “The Nature Conservancy Case Study” below). Calystegia sepium L. is native to the eastern United States, but is now found throughout the country [16][6][17] and occurs in waste areas and fence rows.[6]. Bindweed: How to control it. However, this mixture and others significantly reduced crop yields after two years.[64]. Kratochvil, J. Hay & L.M. The reaction of strains of Field bindweed to 2,4-D. Weed Science 12:57-58. The use of perennial forage crops for the control of field bindweed at Scotland, ND. Investigators suggest using adjuvant but at a concentration of 0.5% w/v to encourage absorption but avoid damage and subsequent decrease in translocation to the roots. Control of field bindweed with glyphosate plus additives. The edges of the mulch should be secured with rocks or soil. They help field bindweed spread vegetatively and allow it to resprout repeatedly following removal of above-ground growth. [27][19] Gray (1970)[1] suggests a growth period of June to September for the northeastern United States. Search for scientific names; Search for common names; Search by distribution; Info. Scientific Name: Convolvulus arvensis L. Common Name: field bindweed Family: Convolvulaceae Legal Status: Class C Description and Variation: Field bindweed is a perennial, viny, weak-stemmed herb. Convolvulis arvensis | Memorial … in the Great Plains) may decrease the effectiveness of herbicides, perhaps because droughts or frost may cause plants to become dormant or semi-dormant. The native grasses were irrigated and cheatgrass was suppressed using Roundup. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) Click on images to enlarge . 1998. Scientific name: Convolvulus arvensis. It gets its name by climbing all the plants in a given area and binding them together; reducing yields. 1985. Convolvulus incanus . Be sure to focus more effort on individual plants or populations that are tolerant to herbicides. Weeds 8:244. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, pp27-28. [6] It may be useful in combination with other methods, however. Bakke, A.L. Weeds 7:195-213. Seely, C.I., K.H. [5][6] The timing of cultivation is crucial, especially if there will be only one per year. Stems usually trail along the ground or climb foliage and other structures. In general, species that grow vigorously during the winter and early spring may be the best competitive crops, because they force field bindweed plants to compete for light when it grows later in the season. Wiese, A.F. 1968. O’Brien and O’Brien (1994) find that field bindweed thrives under irrigated conditions. Field bindweed. 1997. [6], Field bindweed is native to Eurasia (Sa’ad, 1967, per Weaver & Riley)[7][22] but has spread to many parts of the world and is now a cosmopolitan species that grows between 60oN and 45oS latitudes. (1990)[6], however, found that continuous, intensive grazing with sheep over a period of several years can temporarily suppress field bindweed, but that it is likely to fully recover when grazing ceases. 1991. Growth chamber and greenhouse trials in Indiana studied the effects of adjuvants on field bindweed control. Whitworth, J.W. from ground level to the tops of trees). Under moderately rainy conditions field bindweed will be more vigorous and therefore better controlled by herbicides. It is native to Africa, temperate and tropical Asia, and Europe. At the end of the second year the field bindweed was being controlled under both tillage and non-tillage conditions. [10], Fresh seeds from Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, S. Dakota, and California collected over five years differed in percent germination rate (5-47%), impermeability (31-97%), and viability (47-94%), depending on the year and collection site. Picloram is a restricted-use herbicide and is registered only on rangeland and permanent pastures and on fallow grainland east of the Cascades. 1989. 1982. Barry Meyers-Rice, 2001, field bindweed, creeping jenny, European bindweed, morningglory, perennial morningglory, smallflowered morning glory, CONTROL WITH MOWING, DISKING, AND PULLING, CONTROL WITH COMPETITIVE PLANTING, RESTORATION, AND SMOTHER CROPS, Developmental and Environmental Considerations, Biotypes; Tolerance And Sensitivity Considerations. Observationes relativas a las especies del genero “Convolvulus” de los alrededores de la ciudad de La Plata. In northern California and the Great Plains, field bindweed persists into autumn under severely dry conditions when most other plants are unable to sustain growth. & H.A.L. & F.H. Field bindweed may be confused with Polygonum convolvulus L. and with Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br..[6][15] Polygonum convolvulus L. (black or corn bindweed) is a hairless annual species with fibrous roots and slender climbing stems. [1] The genus Convolvulus contains about 250 species (Zomlefer, 1994). Britton, T.C. Convolvulus does not have such sheaths. The Convolvulus species of the Canary Isles, the Mediterranean region and the Near Middle East. [6] It is a selective herbicide that will kill most broad-leaved plants (dicots) but which will not damage most grasses and other monocots. In the spring, after the crop was harvested, the field was tilled and irrigated to encourage germination of weeds. [21], At Rocky Ford, Colorado, dicamba at 2.2 kg/ha provided 93% control after four years. This species is present in most parts of the world where it has been accidentally introduced as a contaminant of both agricultural and horticultural seed. Down to Earth 22(4)6-7. Almost all research on field bindweed pertains to agriculture. Fuller. Tilling may be useful for ridding infestations at sites previously used for agriculture, or which are otherwise very disturbed. Nectar is produced at the base of the tube of fused petals, and attracts various pollinators including Halictid bees, honeybees, bumblebees, butterflies and moths.